Grady Memorial Hospital is a modern 1,000-bed general hospital run by Fulton and DeKalb counties for the purpose of providing emergency care for all citizens and general medical care for the low-income population of these two counties. Residents in training serve as primary physicians for inpatients and outpatients at Grady Hospital. A large number of urology patients have a wide variety of problems or commonly more unusual diseases, or with more advanced disease, than seen in the private office setting. In caring for such patients, residents use diagnostic and therapeutic protocols established by the department, working in consultation and with supervision by members of the faculty. Open and laparoscopic surgery, endoscopic and percutaneous surgery, radical pelvic surgery, trauma surgery, and urethral reconstruction are performed. Residents have much autonomy at Grady, where they learn to manage resources creatively and deal with broad social issues that affect the surgery patient.